Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/adodb/adodb.inc.php on line 893

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/adodb/adodb.inc.php on line 1918

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/adodb/adodb.inc.php on line 1990

Deprecated: mysql_connect(): The mysql extension is deprecated and will be removed in the future: use mysqli or PDO instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/adodb/drivers/adodb-mysql.inc.php on line 360

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnLang.php on line 62

Strict Standards: Declaration of pnRender::clear_cache() should be compatible with Smarty::clear_cache($tpl_file = NULL, $cache_id = NULL, $compile_id = NULL, $exp_time = NULL) in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnRender.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Declaration of pnRender::is_cached() should be compatible with Smarty::is_cached($tpl_file, $cache_id = NULL, $compile_id = NULL) in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnRender.class.php on line 45

Strict Standards: Declaration of pnRender::fetch() should be compatible with Smarty::fetch($resource_name, $cache_id = NULL, $compile_id = NULL, $display = false) in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnRender.class.php on line 45

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 41

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 42

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 43

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 44

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 45

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 46

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 47

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 48

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 49

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 50

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 51

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 53

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 41

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 42

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 43

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 44

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 45

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 46

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 47

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 48

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 49

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 50

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 51

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 53

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 41

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 42

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 43

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 44

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 45

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 46

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 47

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 48

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 49

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 50

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 51

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 53

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 41

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 42

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 43

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 44

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 45

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 46

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 47

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 48

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 49

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 50

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 51

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 53

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 41

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 42

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 43

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 44

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 45

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 46

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 47

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 48

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 49

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 50

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 51

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 53

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAntiCracker.php on line 54

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/safehtml.php on line 607

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 161

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 163

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 164

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 165

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 167

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 168

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 169

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 244

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 251

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 260

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 267

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 274

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 281

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 289

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 486

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 488

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/safehtml/HTMLSax3.php on line 490

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 51

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 51

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 51

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 51

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 51

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 53

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 55

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 56

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 57

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 58

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 63

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 64

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 64

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 65

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 66

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 67

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 68

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 69

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 70

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/legacy/counter.php on line 71

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/Xanthia/pnuserapi.php on line 70

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/Xanthia/pnuserapi.php on line 119

Strict Standards: Declaration of pnCEHTML::URL() should be compatible with pnHTML::URL($url = '', $text = '') in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 238

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 16

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 18

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 20

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 22

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 45

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 47

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 48

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 50

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 56

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 58

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 60

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 62

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 16

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 18

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 20

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 22

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 45

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 47

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 48

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 50

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 56

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 58

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 60

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 62

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/header.php on line 30
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Strict Standards: Non-static method ADOConnection::UnixTimeStamp() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/adodb/adodb.inc.php on line 3007

Strict Standards: Non-static method ADOConnection::UnixTimeStamp() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/adodb/adodb.inc.php on line 3007

Strict Standards: Non-static method ADOConnection::UnixTimeStamp() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/adodb/adodb.inc.php on line 3007

Strict Standards: Non-static method ADOConnection::UnixTimeStamp() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/adodb/adodb.inc.php on line 3007

Strict Standards: Non-static method ADOConnection::UnixTimeStamp() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/adodb/adodb.inc.php on line 3007

Strict Standards: Non-static method ADOConnection::UnixTimeStamp() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/adodb/adodb.inc.php on line 3007

Strict Standards: Non-static method ADOConnection::UnixTimeStamp() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/classes/adodb/adodb.inc.php on line 3007

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 16

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 18

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 20

Deprecated: Function eregi() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 22

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 45

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 47

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 48

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 50

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 56

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 58

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 60

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/modules/ContentExpress/pneditor/pnCEHTML.php on line 62

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /www/htdocs/w00a10d9/html/includes/pnAPI.php on line 589

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Austrian Allergology in International Perspective

A.L. de Weck

Austrian allergology has a very long tradition. Indeed, the concept and the word of "Allergy" were coined in Vienna 90 years ago by Clemens von Pirquet. At the end of the 19th century and at the start of the 20th century, so many scientists of world reputation were working in Austria in the fields of allergology and immunology, that the era should rightfully be designated as the first golden age of allergology and Vienna as its world center.

Most fortunately, thanks to the creation of the Austrian Society of Allergology and Immunology 25 years ago under the impulse of a wise pioneer, Carl Steffen, thanks also since then to the concerted efforts of younger leaders and to the wise support of Austrian universities and research fostering authorities, a second golden age has apparently started and is alreading yielding results which attract wide international recognition.

In my opinion, one important characteristic of Austrian allergology and immunology, which is responsible in good part for its flourishing, is that these fields, both in the minds of leading scientists as well as in the organisation of the Austrian Society, have never been separated. Having fought sucessfully for 30 years in my own country against centrifugal trends and the separation of "mice immunologists" from allergologists and clinical immunologists, I am quite conscious of the intellectual and practical advantages in keeping the various trends together. In most countries of the world, where indeed basic immunologists and clinical allergologists have become separate families, the drawbacks of separation are increasingly felt and remedies in form of joint meetings applied.

The close association of Austrian allergology and immunology yields the effect that it is difficult to dissociate both when describing their international impact. Many of the considerations written by my dear friend Gustav Nossal on Austrian Immunolgy apply to allergology as well and I should avoid to repeat them. In fact, most of the names and groups quoted by Gustav Nossal have made important contributions to immunology and allergology. I wish therefore to look at the Austrian contributions to allergology from a broader angle than those of individual scientists.

The first golden age of Austrian allergology

As already indicated, allergy was actually born in Vienna, at least in terminology, on July 24, 1906, through the communication of Clemens yon Pirquet to the Münchner Medizinische Wochenschrift. But the concept of allergy was in fact only the most visible tip of a flourishing background in experimental and clinical research. From the discovery of the precipitin reaction by Kraus 100 years ago, to the experimental transfer of the tuberculin reaction (Bail, 1904), the investigations of serum disease (von Pirquet and Bela Schick, 1903) and the use of skin hypersensitivity reactions for diagnosis of diphteria (Bela Schick), the Vienna school of medicine laid an important foundation of modern allergology and clinical immunology. Some years later, the classical experiment of Prausnitz and Küstner also yielded a basic tool of clinical allergy, which was in use for more than 50 years, and established the existence of reagins. Numerous other fathers of modern allergology were also working at the time in Vienna, foremost Karl Landsteiner from 1897 till 1919 and Urbach, who published in 1935 a very important treatise on allergic diseases. The only mistake of Urbach at the time was that he denied to allergology a status as medical specialty, considering it rather as "eine medizinische Weltanschauung".

The second golden age of Austrian allergology

After an interruption of almost 25 years, due primarily to the tragic preliminaries and events leading to World War II, the flag was lifted again, primarily by Carl Steffen, who certainly became for 20 years the dominating figure in Austrian immunology and allergology. Thanks to his scientific acumen, his devotion to public causes and to his pupils, and his charismatic personality, a whole school of Austrian allergologists and immunologists arose and form still today the backbone of the Austrian Society. It is also thanks to Carl Steffen that Austria soon regained its place on the international immunology scene, a place which has been since then efficiently kept and broaded by his pupils, as described in Gustav Nossal's report.

Since about 15 years, both in terms of basic and of clinical research, the Austrian contributions have increased in depth, in significance and in international recognition. Certainly, a major role in this respect has been played by Dietrich Kraft, who succeeded, from a clinical activity in allergology, to develop in parallel a scientific activity which has grown increasingly basic, ending up in molecular biological approaches for allergen characterization, which have made his group a world leader. As coordinator of a major research program of the Austrian Science Foundation on "Pathomechanisms of IgE-mediated allergies", he has and still is playing a catalytic role of major importance for the present and the future of Austrian allergology.

Indeed, the contribution of many to the growing perception of Vienna as a world center of allergy research has also to be recognized. Within the above mentioned joint programme, senior scientists such as O. Schreiner, G. Stingl, R. Urbanek, G. Wick, G. Boltz and younger ones, such as R. Valenta, C. Ebner, P. Valent, W. Holter, H. Rumpold, and D. Maurer should be mentioned, as well as many other young researchers and clinicians. The contributing role of clinical research, as carried out by R. Jarisch, F. Horak, H. Popper and several others should also be mentioned. Thanks to all these efforts, and assuming that recognition of the importance of allergology research for public health in Austria shall continue, a bright future for Austrian allergology may be safely predicted.

At present, Austrian allergology may be considered among the world leaders in a number of fields, such as the molecular identification and clinical use of recombinant allergens, the pathophysiological understanding and new therapeutic approaches to atopic dermatitis, the importance of mother-child relationship in the development of atopy, the role of lymphokines and cellular factors in the induction of allergic reactions, the development of animal models for allergic diseases and many clinical problems of great socioeconomic relevance. It has been a great privilege for me, at the end of my scientific career, to be able to interact with many Austrian immunologists and allergologists and to closely follow their progress. I wish to the Austrian Society for Allergology and Immunology most successful next 25 years to follow...!


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